Year 1 Accomplishments

Our milestones for Year 01 were as follows: (1) to establish and convene the Program Implementation Committee and the Training Advisory Committee; (2) to finalize protocols for recruitment, application, and selection of MURTI Fellows; (3) to recruit first cohort of four Fellows; 4) to develop and implement a first set of introductory and short courses; (5) to finalize protocols for applications for Mentored Seed-Grant projects and select the first round of up to four Mentored Seed-Grant Projects; and (6) to develop and implement Program and Fellow evaluation protocols. In this section, we first describe the Year 01 activities toward these milestones, focusing on establishment of the Mbarara University Research Training Initiative (MURTI). In Section B.2.2 we describe our accomplishments by individual program Specific Aims.

Establishment of the MURTI

The MURTI grant was awarded on August 28, 2015. We quickly instituted a series of activities that allowed us to begin recruiting Fellows. We constituted the two proposed program oversight committees, the Program Implementation Committee (PIC) and the Training Advisory Committee (TAC). The PIC comprises the two program directors (CelestinoObua, MD, PhD, and Samuel Maling MD), five program faculty (Francis Bajunirwe MD, MSs, PhD; Godfrey Rukundo, MD, PhD; Conrad Muzoora, MD; Joel Bazira, MD, PhD, and Edith Wakida, MA, MRA) and the MUST Academic Registrar (Martha Kyoshaba MA). The PIC held a series of planning meetings and developed a five-year work plan for the MURTI. More specifically, the PIC developed Fellow recruitment materials, application materials, and procedures for Fellow selection and matching with mentors. The PIC continues to meet the third Saturday of every month to review the program performance.

The TAC, comprising two US members (David Bangsberg, MD, MPH, and Patricia Daoust BS, MNS) and five Ugandan members (Jerome Kabakyenga, MPH, PhD; Winnie Muyindike, MD; SseganeMusisi, MD, DPsych; NozmoMukiibi, MS, PhD, and Betty Mabisi, MBA) was constituted, and members received appointment letters. The TAC meets quarterly in-person for the Ugandan team and by Skype for the US delegates; two meetings have been held:

November 18, 2015, and April 18, 2016; the third will be on June 10, 2016. Using protocols developed by the PIC, the TAC has selected the first cohort of MURTI Fellows (see Section B.2.1.3 below) and continues to advise the PDs and PIC.

Faculty who had agreed to be MURTI Mentors were engaged and received letters detailing their responsibilities. In addition, positions of the MURTI Program Manager and Training Coordinator were advertised and filled. The Program Manager, Samantha Mary, BA, is responsible for coordinating short courses, taking records in PIC and training meetings, and preparation of progress reports. The Training Coordinator, Keith Asiime, BA, manages mentor and trainee budgets, schedules specific core and elective courses, and keeps records related to MURTI Fellows. The two enrolled in a Certification in Research Administration online course in January 2016 and are in the process of completing the course. The skills gained are being translated into the administrative implementation of the MURTI grant. We are also in the process of recruiting a Research Administrator who will be responsible for searching for funding opportunities and disseminating to researchers, ensure an up-to-date database of all grants advertised, applied for, and awarded, and track publications. He/she will provide research and grant support to potential and existing researchers; be responsible for research communication; and work with the ICT department to keep the Office of Research Administration (ORA) website vibrant.

The MURTI was formally launched on November 19, 2015 in Mbarara by the Chancellor of Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST), Professor Peter Mugyenyi. The 80 attendees included MURTI TAC members, MURTI Mentors from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Uganda (Mbarara University, Uganda Heart Institute, and Makerere University); and MUST community and media representatives. During the launch, the newly appointed Fellows (Section B.2.1.3 below) were presented.

Identification of new Fellow placement sites

After the MURTI launch, the MURTI Program Directors and team visited the Uganda Heart Institute (UHI) and Joint Clinical Research Center (JCRC) work out specialized placement arrangements for Fellows. At UHI, we secured commitment from mentors not only to work with Fellows during their rotations, but also to travel to Mbarara for MUST community outreach programs. We are developing a memorandum of understanding with UHI. At JCRC, we toured the research laboratories, for benchmarking as it is a leading research institution in HIV and related complications in Africa.

1.1.3 MURTI Fellows (see detailed information on individual trainees in Section 2.1).

Fellow Selection: A call for applications was released in October, 2015, targeting MUST junior faculty interested in undertaking a research fellowship in HIV (prevention/treatment/care), neurological disorders, or mental health. Applicants submitted concept papers detailing prior experience in research, a research objective and plan, and commitment to a career in research; curriculum vitae and university appointment letters. The documents were forwarded to the TAC members for screening and selection. Out of the seven applications reviewed, three women (DorahNampijja, MD, and Doreen Nakku, MD in neurological diseases; Scholastic Ashaba, MD in mental health) and one man (TaseeraKabanda, MD in HIV) were selected and awarded fellowships during the program launch.

Mentor Matching and Mentoring Plans: Mentors attended the MURTI launch where Fellows presented their research ideas. There was a Mentor-Mentee session in which roles were discussed and Mentors were matched to Fellows based on their areas of expertise as detailed in Table 1. Additional mentors (Brian Westerberg MD, MHSc and Heather Southam (audiologist) matched to Doreen Nakku; Frances Aboud, PhD matched to DorahNampijja; David

Boulware MD, MPH, matched to TaseeraKabanda; and Christine Cooper-Vince MD, PhD; Lynn T. Matthews, MD; and Angela Kaida MD, PhD, matched to Scholastic Ashaba) were identified and mentoring plans agreed upon.

Doreen Nakku

Sensory and neural hearing loss among HIV positive children between 6-12 years at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital

Brian Westerberg MD, MHSc

Heather Southam (audiologist)

Francis Bajunirwe MS, PhD

Dorah Nampiija

Patterns of Cardiac Disease and their relationship to Neurocognitive Development Among Children Attending Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital

Frances Aboud, PhD

Charles Mondo MD, Cardiologist

Taseera Kabanda

“Relation of fungal strain genotype to neurological complications in patients with HIV associated cryptococcal meningitis: A retrospective multi-site study” AND “Evaluation of the trends of gene transcription following Cryptococcal meningitis”

Mark Siedner MD,MPH

David Boulware MD,MPH

Conrad Muzoora MD

Joel Bazira MD, PhD

Scholastic Ashaba

Association between depression, stigma and discrimination, bullying and victimization, social support among children and adolescents infected and affected by HIV

Eugene Kinyanda MD, PhD

Christine Cooper-Vince MD, PhD

Lynn T. Matthews, MD

Angela Kaida, MD, PhD


Individual Development Plans (IDPs): Fellows’ progress is monitored using an Individual Development Plan (IDP) that each Fellow develops with her/his Mentor(s). The IDP is based on identifying four principles: strengths on which to build, weaknesses to improve, opportunities to exploit and threats to mitigate. The IDP outlines at least four activities to be undertaken to address each principle, timelines, support needed, and expected output. Fellows are required to honor goals and activities agreed upon in the IDPs, with any changes being presented in writing to Mentors for approval. Program leadership uses the IDPs to monitor Fellows’ progress to ensure they are on track. Performance is reported to the PIC quarterly and to the TAC annually. Ultimately, we plan to track Fellows’ IDPs as part of a web portal for research communication, which is under development by the MUST ORA and is expected to be available by the end of August 2016.

Mentored Seed-Grant Projects (Table 1): As proposed, the MURTI leadership offers $10,000 to each MURTI Fellow for a mentored research grant. The MURTI Fellows research proposals, which were approved by the TAC and the PDs, were developed with the support of the mentors and submitted to the MUST Research Ethics Committee for approval. Seed funding is given after the Fellows have received ethical approval. Three Fellows (Drs. Ashaba, Nakku and Nampijja) obtained ethical approvals and received the seed funding, while one (Dr. Kabanda) is awaiting response. Refer to section G.1 for attached IRB approvals.

Institutional Research Capacity-Building

The MURTI supported travel of four MUST Research Administrators to the Society of Research Administrators International Meeting 2015 in Las Vegas, NV, USA and one to the Association of Research Administrators in African meeting in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. These meetings provided a platform for discussion, training, and benchmarking of best practices in research administration. The MUST Research Administrators were able to appreciate the diversity of research administration and took note of areas for improvement.

MURTI supported the Program Directors (Drs. Obua and Maling), the Research Manager (Ms. Wakida), and the University Accounting Officer (Mr. Mujuni Pac Lawrence) to the University of Nairobi (UoN) in Kenya; Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston, MA, USA; and Stellenbosch University, South Africa to brainstorm about strategies for improving the research environment at MUST. The Nairobi trip provided the opportunity to gain experience from another well-established Sub-Saharan African research university. These meetings with leading UoN officials resulted in an agreement to develop a memorandum of understanding between MUST and UoN to form partnerships and share resources.

In addition, UoN encouraged MUST to subscribe to the Research Africa platform to gain access to a wide range of funding opportunities as this was one of the reasons they were ranking highly in research. Research Africa ( is a comprehensive source of information about sponsors of African science and development research funding programs for senior researchers, research managers, administrators and others tasked with promoting science and innovation research capacity of their institution. This platform is the clearing house for a range of funding opportunities including research grants, development grants, Scholarships, fellowships, mobility grants, research funding, project funding, capacity building grants, travel grants, research collaboration calls, hosting of conferences grants, hosting visits, innovation grants, publication grants, thesis /dissertation support grants, and clinical trials. The MUST team met with the Research Africa team in Nairobi, and, as a result, the MURTI supported the MUST subscription to the platform for one year to allow faculty direct access to funding opportunities with the hope that there can be successful grant applications to sustain the subsequent subscriptions.

The MUST Office of Research Administration (ORA) is using these and other resources to identify funding opportunities and link potential interdisciplinary research teams to them. Two such teams were formed and responded to funding opportunities. One team headed by Gertrude Kiwanuka, MS, PhD, submitted the application titled “Mbarara University Research Ethics Education Program” to Fogarty International Center; the other team is developing an application on HIV for high risk populations. The ORA will also assist the four MURTI Fellows and their Mentors in responding to extramural funding opportunities. A dedicated grant-writing training will be provided to MURTI Fellows working with their Mentors in 2016 to develop such proposals. The Workshop also will be open to other junior research faculty at MUST.

In Nairobi, the MUST team also visited African Mental Health Foundation (AMHF) to discuss prospects of collaboration in child and adolescent mental health, trauma, as well as share experiences in community entry. A memorandum of understanding was drafted and is awaiting completion. It may serve as a Fellow placement site, but it is primarily for promoting research in the department of Psychiatry.

Implementation of the MURTI:

MURTI Short courses. We have so far conducted 14 of the 16 research capacity development courses planned for Year 1. Five were required core courses originally proposed, five (marked with *) were required core courses added in response to a need assessment survey on needs of MUST junior faculty, and four were elective courses:

Core Courses

  • Responsible Conduct of Research

  • Grant-Writing, Administration, and Management

  • Scientific Manuscript Writing

  • Intellectual Property

  • Data Management

  • *Systematic Review of Research Literature

  • *Endnote Referencing Manager

  • *Qualitative Research Methods

  • *Implementation Research

  • *Archiving and Retrieving of Research Samples

Elective Courses:

  • Fundamentals of Molecular Diagnostics

  • Good Clinical Laboratory Practice

  • Development of Psychological Tools

  • Advanced Research Methods.

Courses in quantitative research methods and developing policy briefs will take place in June 2016 as detailed in Aim 5 (Section B.2.2.5 below). The MUST Office of Research Administration (ORA) identified and engaged experienced facilitators to develop and administer the courses; course leaders were given an orientation about MURTI, and a time frame in which to complete the course development process. A training schedule was developed and followed as planned.

All courses offered at MUST are open to all MUST junior faculty. In the five originally proposed core courses, 44 were trained in Responsible Conduct of Research, 18 in Grant Writing, 22 in Scientific Manuscript Writing, 12 in Intellectual Property, and 31 in Data Management. In the five newly developed core courses, 17 were trained in systematic literature review, 28 in endnote referencing manager, 32 in qualitative research methods, 19 in archiving and retrieving of research samples, and 31 in implementation research. In the four elective courses, 26 were trained in Fundamentals of Molecular Diagnostics, 63 in Good Clinical Laboratory Practice, 13 in Development of Psychological Tools, and 4 MURTI Trainees in advanced research methods.

In June 2016 during the last TAC meeting Year 01, we will select the second cohort of four Fellows whose applications have been received to begin the program in August 2016. All the MURTI short courses offered in Year 01 will be repeated in Year 02, and the Fellows will be expected to attend all the core courses, an advanced research methods course and relevant elective courses.



We have appointed the first four MURTI Fellows in the areas covered by our Specific Aims as described below. See Table 1 above, also.

AIM 1: To develop junior faculty research expertise in HIV prevention and treatment, particularly in rural southwestern Uganda

In Year 01, the MURTI appointed one Fellow in this research area. Dr. KabandaTaseera is a Physician and Clinical Microbiologist whose research interests are HIV-associated opportunist infections, particularly cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis. In the MURTI program, he is working on two related seed-grant projects with Drs. Mark Siedner from MGH, David Boulware from University of Minnesota, Conrad Muzoora and Joel Bazira from MUST as mentors. In the first, “Relation of fungal strain genotype to neurological complications in patients with HIV associated cryptococcal meningitis: A retrospective multi-site study,”he aims to explore the influence of Cryptococcal molecular type on the development of neurological complications in patients with Cryptococcal meningitis using

data collected during the Cryptococcal Optimal Antiretroviral Timing (COAT) trial (clinicaltrials.govNCT01075152). He is awaiting Research Ethics Committee permission to utilize the data set. This will lead to his second project that aims to evaluate the trends of gene transcription following Cryptococcal meningitis. It is a pilot that is aimed at optimizing methods for in-vivo isolation and storage of messenger rRNA and using this to compare gene expression in CM patients with and without neurological complications in order to decipher the role of particular genes in disease severity, development of drug resistance as well as immune response. The results will be used to identify drug targets, predict and modify treatments, and predict onset of drug resistance. Data will also be used to evaluate the role of personalized treatment in improving health outcomes. These data from the second project also will be used to explain findings from the first. He hopes to develop this idea to a PhD level.

AIM 2: To develop the capacity of Ugandan junior faculty to develop novel, evidence-based diagnostic and treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in rural populations to address priority health needs.

We did not plan to recruit a CVD Fellow in Year 01, but aim to do so in Year 02.

AIM 3: To prepare junior faculty for research careers addressing mental health disorders in rural Uganda.

We have appointed one Fellow in this area, a female Physiatrist, Dr. Scholastic Ashaba, who is completing her PhD. She is mentored by Drs. Eugene Kinyanda from Makerere University; Christine Cooper-Vince and Lynn T. Matthews from MGH; and Angela Kaida from Simon Fraser University (SFU), Canada.

Her research focus is on “Association between depression, stigma and discrimination, bullying and victimization, social support among children and adolescents infected and affected by HIV.” Dr. Ashaba received ethical clearance from MUST Research Ethics Committee and Uganda National Council for Science and Technology; completed data collection; and is now reviewing the transcripts as well as validating the Beck Depression Inventory tool. She has submitted two abstracts: one to the 21st International AIDS conference to be held in Durban South Africa July 18-22, 2016 titled “Validity and reliability of the HSCL-25 among HIV positive adults in rural Uganda,” and the other to the MUST Reproductive Health Research Conference scheduled May 26, 2016 titled “Understanding coping strategies during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a qualitative study of women living with HIV in rural Uganda”. They were both accepted.

AIM 4: To develop the capacity of Ugandan junior faculty to develop novel, evidence-based diagnostic and treatment strategies for CVD, and mental health as well as for use of neuro-radiology in rural populations to address priority health needs in rural populations to address priority health needs.

Two Fellows were selected under this aim. Dr. Doreen Nakku is an ENT Surgeon with a research focus on “Sensory and neural hearing loss among HIV positive children between 6-12 years at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital.” She is mentored by Dr. Francis Bajunirwe from MUST and Drs. Brian Westerberg and Heather Southam from University of British Columbia (we did not find a good mentor match for her from MGH). Dr. DorahNampijja is a Pediatrician focusing on “Patterns of Cardiac Disease and their relationship to Neurocognitive Development Among Children Attending Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital.” She is mentored by Drs. Frances Aboud from McGill University, Canada and Charles Mondo from Uganda Heart Institute/Makerere University.

Dr. Nakku will use the PATH Sentiero equipment for advanced audiological tests to carry out Otoacoustic emissions and Auditory Brainstem Response (OAE and ABR respectively) during data collection. She will receive training on how to use the equipment when she travels to attend the advanced audiology training May 31 to June 17, 2016 at the School of Human

Communication Disorders, Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Dr. Nampijja will use the Bailey’s III kit for assessing development in children as well as the ECG machine during data collect; she received training on how to use the tools, and is beginning data collection.

AIM 5: To equip junior faculty with the administrative, research ethics, and research communication capacities necessary to succeed as the next generation of independent investigators in Uganda

In addition to our focus on the four MURTI Fellows appointed each year (who are required to take all core courses, an advanced research methods course, and relevant elective courses), the program is committed to building the research capacity of junior faculty and research administrators at MUST.

Examples of significant outcomes thus far in Year 01 from MURTI courses and other capacity-building activities are the following:

  • During the manuscript writing training, Dr. Doreen Nakku (MURTI Fellow) developed a manuscript and submitted to BMC Journal Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders titled “A case control study of the factors associated with occurrence of aerodigestive foreign bodies in children in a regional referral hospital in South Western Uganda..)”.It was accepted and published online 2016 Mar 15 PMC4792106.

  • Dr. Scholastic Ashaba (MURTI Fellow) also developed a manuscript, during the training titled “Understanding coping strategies during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a qualitative study of women living with HIV in rural Uganda,”mwhich is under review at BMC Journal Pregnancy and Childbirth. Dr. Ashaba has three more manuscript under development with support from her mentors.

  • As a result of training in how to conduct systematic reviews and meta-analysis of literature, 8 teams were formed and are working on protocols to conduct systematic review research projects that they hope to register with the Cochrane database e the leading resource of systematic reviews in health care –tby December 2016.

  • The EndNote training resulted in 35 EndNote and 10 STATA licenses were purchased and distributed to junior faculty who are now using EndNote referencing manager when writing research proposals and manuscripts.

  • The MUST ORA website is under development to strengthen research communication at MUST. The website is in the final stages of development and will be operational at the beginning of MURTI Year 02.

  • 379 MUST faculty are registered on the Research Africa Platform (see Section B.2.1.4.above), which provides access to funding opportunities as well as news and analyses on topics giving African researchers, students and policymakers an edge in the competition for research funding. We anticipate that more than half of the faculty registered on the platform will write and submit a research grant application by the end of the program.

  • Eleven junior faculty submitted concepts to the Sida program of the Swedish government for funding to pursue PhD and Masters Programs. Five faculty were given 4-year PhD Scholarships and six were given Masters Scholarships to study at Makerere University and MUST, respectively. One MURTI key personnel (Joel Bazira MD, PhD) applied and was also given a postdoctoral fellowship at Makerere University under the same Sida arrangement.

In summary, as a result of the training provided to MUST junior faculty through the MURTI, there is likely to be an increase in the number of grant applications and publications in peer-reviewed journals from the institution. The MURTI training sessions generated increased interest applying for grants, and the MUST ORA is supporting junior faculty in identifying and

applying for funding opportunities on the Research Africa professional platform through the MUST subscription.

The entire MURTI is aimed at training and professional development – both of the four Fellows enrolled each year and of the larger MUST junior faculty. In addition, MURTI Fellows are collaborating with other junior faculty in their departments; Drs. Doreen Nakku and Scholastic Ashaba trained other junior faculty in their respective departments on how to collect data for their seed projects so that they work together. In this way, they are providing peer mentorship. Dr. Ashaba is also working with postgraduate students in manuscript writing, as well as providing research supervision. Dr. Nakku is guiding the residents in proposal writing and methodology besides co-supervisor two residents' research work. She has been tasked by her Head of Department to oversee research in the department.

The MURTI program facilitated the professional development of the Research Manager (Edith Wakida MA, MRA), Finance Manager (Julius Atugonza, BA, CPA), and a Lecturer/cardiothoracic surgeon (Alfred Omo, MD). The Research Manager was facilitated to attend a two-week Philosophy of Methods course at Makerere University. This is a foundational course needed when developing a research idea and helps to explain the theoretical basis of doing research. The skills gained are being shared with junior faculty/researchers who utilize the ORA. The Finance Manager was supported to attend the East Southern Africa Management Institute executive MBA program to strengthen his financial management skills as well as build capacity in the general research administration. The lecturer/cardiothoracic surgeon was supported to attend the International Cardiothoracic Symposium at the Royal College of Surgeons of England May 19-24, 2016. He will share knowledge gained with other junior faculty and students in his department. Dr. Maling, Wakida, and Asiime attended the Society of Research Administrators (SRA) International conference at Las Vegas, Nevada USA to learn best practices while Samantha attended the one in Dar es salaam, Tanzania


In Year 02, the first four Fellows will complete their research, develop and submit grant proposals, and write manuscripts for publication in professional journals. From September 26 to November 16, 2016, the MURTI will host an intensive grant-writing course for the MURTI Fellows with an outside expert. Each session of the course will cover one section or aspect of NIH-style grant proposals, and each MURTI Fellow will form a team to work on an extramural application with her/his MURTI Mentor(s).

The program for the Research Symposium will be instituted in preparation for Year 03. All cohort one Fellows will be expected to prepare for the dissemination of their findings during the symposium; mentors and junior faculty will be requested to prepare abstracts in the relevant MURTI research areas; and invitations for delegates will be sent out so that they can save the date for the symposium.

We will begin monitoring publication, presentation, and grant submission outcomes as well as the capacity of the MUST ORA to facilitate grant proposal submission and grant management as a result of MURTI promotion of junior faculty research.

In addition to the obvious development of human resources through MURTI training of MUST junior faculty, several other MURTI-associated activities have resulted in new development opportunities.

In the spring of 2016, the MUST team (led by MURTI Program Directors Drs. Obua and Maling) visited MGH and Harvard School of Public Health to meet face-to-face with the MGH and Harvard mentors on the project implementation, for benchmarking and collaborative engagements. Through connections in their various departments, mentors pledged to build human resource capacity at MUST which will benefit not only MUST but also the rural Ugandan communities that MUST serves.

Examples of the development of human resources are

  • The MGH oncology team is committed to mentoring MUST junior faculty in research, surgical skills and grant writing above the MURTI program.

  • Ms. Patricia Daoust a MURTI TAC member from the department of nursing at MGH Global Health is providing mentorship to the nursing department at MUST. They worked together on the strategic plan to transition into an independent nursing school/faculty. As a result, MGH is committed to funding 2 years of salary support for 2 of the recent Masters in Nursing Science MNS graduates to increase on human resource; this was in response to the hospital director that the hospital nurses need critical care training. The referral hospital will hire these nurses in the ICU and A&E ward.

  • The mental health area at MUST is challenged by limited human resources; with the MUST MURTI MGH collaboration, MGH promised to support the department of Psychiatry, MUST in teaching and learning of residents in through sharing video recorded lectures in addition to opening up the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy online four-week course without charge. MUST will need to adapt the online course so that it is offered to other residents and staff.


Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training targeted MURTI fellows, MUST postgraduate students, and all persons involved in research including established MUST faculty. The main objective of the training was to provide a guide for researchers regarding RCR; the main ethical standards and outline the operations and review process of Research Ethics Committees. The training was centered on promoting integrity in research. Lectures, group discussions, case study approach and excursions were used to teach the RCR course. Each case study had accompanying questions to guide discussion. At the end of the course, trainees were expected to define and describe the components of responsible conduct of research; understand ethics in research and how it came about; describe research misconduct and procedures for reporting and investigating it; analyze violation of research regulations; and recognize conflict of interest and develop strategies to avoid or manage such conflicts. The RCR training was conducted twice each over a five-day period with 18 participants in the January 2016 and 26 participants in April 2016 class.

The RCR course was conducted by Dr. Gertrude Kiwanuka the deputy chair MUST REC since 2011, Dr. Francis Bajunirwe the current MUST REC Chair since 2015, Dr. Paul Alele and Mr. Oloro Joseph.

All the four fellows have taken the human subjects education. Drs. Kabanda and Ashaba completed CITI program while Drs. Nakku, and Nampijja completed the NIH online program Besides the human subjects training, all the proposal have got to MUST Research Ethics Committee and Uganda National Council for Science and Technology for ethical clearance.